jahāñ ḳhudā ke nishān-e-pā ne panāh lī hai
jahāñ ḳhudā kī za.iif āñkheñ
abhī salāmat bachī huī haiñ,
yahī samāvī ḳhirām merā nasīb niklā
yahī samāvī ḳhirām jo merī aarzū thā
– Noon Meem Rashid


Jahanpannah, literally meaning “the refuge of the world” in Persian, consisted of eight kilometres of wall linking old Qutub Delhi (Lal kot and the area around Quwwat-ul-islam mosque) and Siri with Tughlaqabad and Adilabad. Sultan Muhammad bin Tughlaq was building the citadel of Daulatabad and the fortification of Jahanpaanah simultaneously. One of the purposes of the construction of the wall was to provide protection to the people from Mewati robbers. At the centre of Jahanpannah is located the famous Begumpur masjid. To the north of Begumpur masjid is Bijai Mandal which is a ruined structure and is considered to be remains of Hazar Sutun palace of Muhammad Bin Tughlaq. At the southern end of the wall are three interesting structures: the Satpula, a mori or a drain and two jhals or waterfalls.


Jahanpannah, constructed by Muhammad bin tughlaq, consisted of eight kilometres of wall linking old qutub delhi (lal kot and the area around quwwat-ul-islam mosque) and Siri with Tughlaqabad and Adilabad. Thirteen gates, 6 in the north and 7 seven in the south and the east, interspersed the wall which was almost 12 metres thick at some places.

Bijai Mandal, located 42 metres north of Begampur masjid, is a ruined structure and is considered to be remains of Hazar Sutun palace of Muhammad Bin Tughlaq. Bijai mandal is an octagonal structure made of rubble, consists of steep sloping sides and rests on a platform with dimensions 74metres by 78metres. It has four doorways consisting of plain stone jambs and arched openings. The roof of the mandal is accessed by stairs located in the south-western corner. The edge of the roof has remains of what is supposed to have been the former position of the pillars. Remains of an arcaded structure made of grey stone pillars with a flat roof can also be found east of Bijai Mandal. Begumpur masjid is located at the centre of jahanpannah, like the quwwat-ul-islam mosque is another congregational mosque (jami masjid), although with certain modifications. The dimensions of the mosque are ninety by ninety-four metres. The mosque has domed gateways on the north, south and the east; and is accessible by a broad flight of stairs on the eastern gateway. The gateway on the eastern side along with the dome consists of an interior iwan that is representative of the Iranian influence. This Iranian type of architecture was probably brought by Zahir-al-din al-Jayush, who was the architect of Muhammad Bin Tughlaq. This mosque comprises of a central courtyard, 75m by 68m in dimensions, with arcades on north, south and the east and a prayer hall which is 3 bayed and low-domed on the west. This mosque also has a four iwan plan which was used for the first time in Indo Islamic architecture. The four-iwan plan consists of four iwans in the middle of each side. Another Iranian feature of the mosque is that the iwan on the western wall has two non-functional 3-storeyed minarets. These are polygonal in shape on the first storey and circular on the second and third storeys. The northern part of the prayer wall has a royal masqura with a stone mihrab. The walls enclosing the mosque exhibit typical Tughlaq slope. These walls are hen plastered with thick stucco with glazed blue tiles which in some places are still intact and is reminiscent of Iranian influence.


a. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jahanpanah
b. Welch, Anthony and Crane, Howard. “The Tughlaqs: Master Builders of the Delhi Sultanate”. 1983
c. “Monuments of Delhi: Lasting Splendour of the Great Mughals and Others Volume IV Badarpur-Shahdara Zail.”1997
d. https://www.rekhta.org/